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Robin Libert & Guy Rapaille | Belgian Intelligence and Counterintelligence | Intelligence & Interview N.31 | Giangiuseppe Pili

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Intelligence & Interview has one mission but several goals. One of them is to expand the culture of different national intelligence experiences within the Intelligence Studies framework, which is the international scientific standard and community. Coupled with it, the translation in Italian will reinforce the international ties for the Italian readership. We are doing our best to include as many different nationalities and perspectives as possible. First, the (international) Intelligence Studies are still focused more on the Anglosphere intelligence experience than anything else. But only in Europe, we have so many different approaches to intelligence (in practice) and to intelligence studies (in theory) that we cannot and should not be satisfied with the status quo. As I consider myself much more oriented in international intelligence studies than on the national research (though along with my colleague – Fabrizio Minniti – we already published a paper on Italian intelligence), I strongly believe and advocate for a more integrated and broad discussion on intelligence. Then, for this reason, we already explored several intelligence perspectives (in order of publication: Zimbabwe & Africa, Italy, France, Greece, the Netherlands). However, we hosted scholars from many other countries to bring their knowledge and experience (USA, Canada, UK…). With this aim in mind, it is my pleasure to publish this Interview with two outstanding experts, very experienced professionals, Robin Libert and Guy Rapaille. This is the first “double” Intelligence & Interview, which makes me particularly happy with it. I want to thank Mr. Davide Madeddu for his early translation from French. I want also to thank Giacomo Carrus for his work on the English version of this interview. Without further ados, it is then with my distinct pleasure to publish the Interview on Scuola Filosofica – for those who don’t know it yet; it is one of the leading cultural blogs in Italy. In the name of Scuola Filosofica Team, our readers, and myself, Giangiuseppe Pili, Robin and Guy: thank you!

#1 Mr Robin Libert and Mr Guy Rapaille, let’s start from the basics. How would you like to present yourself to the International readers and Philosophical School (Scuola Filosofica)?

@Robin LIBERT: [RL]

  • Historian,
  • ‘Modernist’(16th-18th Century), mainly Austrian Netherlands (18th C).
  • Intelligence analyst, from Analyst to Director of Analysis (Sûreté de l’Etat, VSSE)
  • Today: Councilor general, ‘Academic outreach & Partnerships’ (VSSE)
  • President RUSRA-KUIAD, Royal Union of Intelligence and Action Services (WWII)
  • Board Member BISC, Belgian Intelligence Studies Centre
  • Great-nephew of two Intelligence and Action Agents (WWII)
  • Author of articles
  • Co-editor of several books and the series “BISC – Cahiers d’Etudes du Renseignement”
  • Curator of expositions on Belgian intelligence history
  • Assisted in the realization of several TV documentaries on historical cases.

@Guy Rapaille: [GR]

– Honorary Attorney General at the Liege Court of Appeal.

– Honorary President of the Permanent Control Committee of the Intelligence Services (“Permanent Committee R”).

– Member of the board of the BISC (Honorary President).

– Former scientific collaborator at the University of Liège.

– Chairman of the board of directors of the information and notification center on harmful sectarian organizations.

#2 During the last six years, Belgium had to face a tough threat from foreign fighters and terrorists directly on its soil. How has Belgium reacted to this scary situation?


Belgium was not the only country targeted by terrorist attacks. Since 2015, the Intelligence Services have made the fight against terrorism a priority, allocating additional human resources and forging partnerships with foreign intelligence services. For example, State Security highlighted the fundamental role of the organization “Sharia4Belgium” in the spread of Salafism and jihadism. At the time (2010), few people took the group leader seriously, and the press and the political world found him folkloric, as he held press conferences announcing that Sharia law would come

quickly to Belgium! Since 2015, the Belgian services have further developed their partnerships with the Federal Police and the Federal Prosecutor’s Office. An example of this virtuous collaboration: on January 13, 2015 (one week after Charlie Hebdo), following information received from the State Security, the Federal Police, under the direction of the Federal Prosecutor’s Office, neutralized a terrorist cell in Verviers (in the East of the country, near the border with Germany) which was preparing to commit attacks (manufacture of TATP explosives). Likewise, the collaboration with foreign services has improved, mainly, but not exclusively, with the neighboring states’ and more distant countries’ Services.

However, it must be recognized that these efforts are not sufficient to avoid attacks on Belgian or French soil. I refer to the conclusions of the parliamentary inquiry commission on terrorist attacks (to which I collaborated as chairman of the R Committee). The Intelligence Services have followed, as far as possible, the Commission’s recommendations, in particular by creating a common platform (the two Services and the Federal Police) to monitor the internet 24 hours a day.

But due to budgetary reasons, it must be recognized that agents’ recruitment is inadequate to the [current] needs. The synergies between State Security and the General Intelligence and Security Service (the Military Intelligence Service) have partially remedied this deficiency.

The fight against terrorism is not limited to radical Islamism. State Security Security allowed in 2018 the neutralization of individuals linked to Iran, who were preparing to commit an attack in France during the meeting of Iranian political dissidents. On February 4, 2021, the Antwerp Criminal Court sentenced an Iranian diplomat to twenty years in prison.

Far-right terrorism draws [Belgian] services’ attention in the same way as the rest of the other European services (Great Britain, France, Germany).

The Services are well aware of the need to adapt to old and new threats, but the budgets allocated by the government and parliamentary authorities do not seem commensurate with these different challenges.

#3 I know this can be hard, but I have to raise this question. If we compare Belgium with its neighbors, France had to face similar terrorist threats. So, why is Belgium one of the most hit EU countries by Islamic terrorism?


Like other European countries, Belgium has had to face attacks and terrorist groups. I am not convinced that the Belgian situation is more unfavorable than elsewhere. It is enough to bear in mind the numerous attacks in Great Britain since 2005, the Madrid attacks and the neutralization of a terrorist group in Catalonia, Germany’s attacks, and more recently in Austria, not to mention France.

The press highlighted Brussels and, in particular, Molenbeek (municipality of the Brussels conurbation). There is indeed an essential community of Moroccan origin with typical integration problems. This may explain the importance of the number of departures in the Syria-Iraq area.

However, it is incorrect to claim that Belgium is a “target” in the context of terrorism. [There were only two cases:] only one attack perpetrated directly by an Islamist group, that of March 22, 2016 (Zaventem airport and subway station) and the attack committed by a radicalized Belgian citizen on prison leave, convicted of drug trafficking and theft.

Several people linked to Belgium participated in the Paris attacks, but most of the perpetrators were French. Brussels was used as a base by terrorists since they knew the region and since Belgium’s central European location allowed them to travel easily across the continent.

The recent attacks in Europe have no ties to Belgium.

Furthermore, as explained above, the priority given to the fight against terrorism by the Intelligence Services has contributed to a better understanding of the phenomenon.

#4 I would like to explore Belgium’s intelligence history. What are the main historical steps that shaped the Belgian intelligence community? 


– Belgium had bad experiences with the French regime (1794-1815) and the United Kingdom of the Netherlands (1815-1830). Both brought about a centralized state, with repressive political police. The first developed by Joseph Fouché (1759-1820), Minister of Police under First Consul Bonaparte, then Emperor Napoleon I. He developed the ‘Haute Police’ system (policing of political activities). The second Cornelis Felix van Maanen (1769-1846), Minister of Justice and Police of King Willem I continued this policy.

– At the time of the Belgian independence (September 1830), the National Congress therefore no longer wanted to know about the previous police systems. It gave Belgium a very liberal constitution, in which the essential freedoms (association, expression, press …) were guaranteed.

– On October 16, 1830 the Provisional Government established 5 ministries of which ‘Public Security’ (Sûreté publique / Openbare Veiligheid) was one. However, this was soon integrated into the Ministry of Justice. The ‘Public Security’, as an administration within the Justice Department, would continue to exist until 1993, with two main branches: ‘State Security’ (Sûreté de l’Etat / Veiligheid van de Staat) and ‘Aliens Police’ (Police des Etrangers / Vreemdelingenpolitie).

– As we say, this makes Belgium the country with the oldest continuously existing intelligence service in the world. With the exception of the ‘Holy Inquisition’ of the Vatican (later on ‘Holy Office’ and today ‘Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith’).

– The aversion to the political police as a system made decision makers turn away from the French and Dutch models in 1830. They started to be inspired by the British model. More specifically, the theories of Patrick Colquhoun (1745-1820), the founder of the first regular preventive police force in England, the ‘Thames River Police’. Along with the ‘Bow Street Runners’ and Sir Robert Peel’s (1788-1850) ‘New Police’ it evolved into the ‘Metropolitan Police Force’ (Scotland Yard). Colquhoun’s books ‘A treatise on the functions and Duties of a Constable’ (1803) and ‘A treatise on the Police of the Metropolis’ (1806) inspired similar forces abroad, f.e. Dublin, Sydney, New York City, …

– As early as 1830 (December, 13th) the first Administrator-General of the Public Security, Isidore Plaisant (1795-1836) wrote a report to the National Congress about the service’s tasks and its working methods. In it he also described the ‘intelligence cycle’, in the same terms as we find it today in academic books on intelligence.

– Another essential fact that would remain current until after WWII was the status of a neutral country that Belgium enjoyed. This statute was imposed on Belgium by the Great Powers (Austria, Russia, United Kingdom, Prussia and France) in 1830 as a condition to recognize independence. Belgium, but also the ‘Public Security’ would always follow this up with scruples.

– In the 1830’s we had several problems of internal security. The major problem was the “orangists”, Belgians who remained loyal to the regime of the United Kingdom of the Netherlands for political and economic (colonial trade with the Dutch East- and West-Indies) reasons. The second problem was the “republicans”, once the National Congress had opted for a monarchical form of government. Thirdly, the “reunionists” who preferred a (re)attachment to France. Finally the “social radicals” within the Belgian uprising. We still see this assignment in the range of duties today: extremism & interference (‘ingérence’).

– But almost immediately Belgium was also confronted (with what we are still today) as a asylum country for political refugees. As early as 1830, refugees poured in from France, supporters of the former King Charles X of France. What was immediately a thorny problem for the independence based on the neutrality guaranteed by the new French regime of King Louis-Philippe I of the French. (The King would become in 1832 father-in-law of King Leopold I of the Belgians.) Followed the Spanish refugees after every Carlist War (1833-1840, 1846-1849, 1872-1876).

– A large influx of political refugees emerged in the framework of the revolutions of 1848. From 1845 to 1848 Friedrich Engels and Karl Marx (expelled from his native Prussia) lived in Brussels. They wrote the ‘Communist Manifesto’ and published the ‘Brüsseler Zeitung’. Marx, however, was involved in a coup plot by the Belgian republicans (armed by the French revolutionary government), against his residence conditions. He was expelled and went to London.

– From 1870 onwards, Belgium was strongly confronted with espionage. After the Franco-Prussian war and the foundation of the German Empire, neutral Belgium felt trapped between two great powers. Belgium developed extensive defense works (the ‘national reduit’, with fortress belts). The intention was that the army could maintain the defense here until the help of one of the guaranteeing nations arrived (most likely the United Kingdom). The German Empire (already with von Schlieffen’s plan in mind) spied around these defense belts.

– Belgium’s first experiences with terrorism are situated in the last quarter of the 19th century. The influx of refugees on the one hand and students on the other from Central Europe and the Russian Empire were again at the basis. They were mostly anarchists or nihilists. As in many other countries (Europe, USA), heads of state and politicians became victims of assassination attempts.

– For Belgium two examples with an Italian context. The anarchist Gennaro Rubino (1859-1918) had fled Italy and lived in Glasgow. First, he planned an assassination attempt on King Edward VII, but changed his mind. On November 15th, 1902 (King’s Day) he wanted to shoot at King Leopold II and Crown Prince Albert, but wounded the Grand Marshal of the Royal Court. The police had to get him to safety from a lynching mob. Sentenced to life, he died in prison in 1918. The second case concerns Fernando de Rosa, an anti-fascist. In October 1929, Umberto Prince of Piedmont (King Umberto II) came to Brussels to ask for the hand of Princess Marie-José. During a ceremony at the Congress Column (Tomb of the Unknown Soldier) , de Rosa shot at the Prince but missed. He too was saved from the hands of the public. He was sentenced to 5 years and was – at the request of Prince Umberto – after 2,5 years pardoned by King Albert I. He died during the Spanish civil war.

Modern techniques were progressively introduced. In the 1830s: records, files, listings. In the 1840s personal descriptions, daguerreotype. To evolve to photography, fingerprints, …

– Already early (1830’s) a cooperation developed with the (police) services of surrounding countries. The confrontation with anarchist terrorism intensified this. This resulted in an intense bilateral exchange of intelligence with, for example, Russian Empire (Okhrana), Austria-Hungary…

#5 Thanks to another Intelligence & Interview publication, our readers learned the differences between British and French approaches to intelligence inside the African colonies. Did the colonial and imperial Belgium’s involvement shape the intelligence culture? What was the Belgian approach to intelligence oversees?


– Three situations can be distinguished in international law: the Congo Free State, 1885-1908 (an independent state in personal union – King Leopold II – with Belgium), the Belgian Congo, 1908-1960 (a colony) and the Kingdoms of Rwanda-Urundi, 1916-1962 (Belgian invasion of German East Africa and occupation, 1916-1922. Belgian League of Nations mandate, 1922-1946. Belgian UN Trust Territory, 1946-1962.) In 1926 Rwanda-Urundi were administratively merged with the Belgian Congo.

– A separate administrative structure was developed for the colony and the mandate areas. This also included a proper intelligence service, the ‘Sûreté congolaise’, depending of the Governor General of the Belgian Congo. There was therefore no substantive or administrative dependence between the ‘Sûreté congoloaise’ and the State Security in Belgium.

– However, we see that the ‘Sûreté congolaise’ fulfilled the same tasks – internal and external security – as the intelligence service in the motherland. In addition, we also see more modern tasks, which today are in the law as harmful sectarian organizations. In the Belgian Congo this included indigenous groups with a radical political and religious basis.

– An important part of the work involved investigations into Europeans active in the colony. As well as security vetting’s of personnel of critical infrastructures (ex. uranium mines) .

– At independence in 1960, the colonial ‘Sûreté congolaise’ transferred quite a bit of information  and technical equipment (reports “remise-reprise”) to its successor service.

 #6 The major revolution in the secret world happened slightly before and during the First War World. This was definitely the case for the USA, the UK, France, and Italy. However, WWI was fought directly and heavily on Belgian soil. Was WWI a major moment for the Belgian intelligence? And what about WWII?



– Founded in 1830, the Public Security – and under it the State Security – was a routine service in 1914.

– With the German invasion and the rapid occupation of the country, the Belgian King, government and army withdrew behind the front at the Yser River.

– In Brussels, the Aliens Police continued to function under German supervision. State Security was of course of no importance to the Germans.

– Only as late as 1915 the Belgian Military Security was established at the Yser front. Therefore this service was of limited use only in the military events on and behind the front.

– In occupied Belgium, espionage services and escape lines were developed by Belgian citizens. Given the paralysis of the State Security and the Military Security being on the front lines, these Belgians mostly worked directly with the British services.

– Three examples of Belgian networks that have grown to iconic proportions:

Edith Cavell, a British nurse with a number of Belgian supporters, ran an escape line for allied soldiers from her hospital in Brussels. Arrested and executed, the Germans unwillingly turned her into an icon (ex. statue near Trafalgar Square) in allied propaganda.

– The young Belgian Gabrielle Petit spied and passed on information. She was also arrested and executed. She became an icon (ex. statues in Brussels and native Tournai) in Belgian propaganda.

Walthère Dewé, engineer at the Belgian telephone and telegraph, set up a large spy network “La Dame Blanche”. According to British official sources, this Belgian network was qualitatively the best in all occupied countries during WWI. Seeing what was going to happen, Dewé already sought renewed contact with his British supporters in 1939 and called his people from WWI back together. They had a very fruitful restart until 1944 as ‘Clarence. A few months before the liberation, Dewé was stopped and shot to death in Brussels during an accidental identity check.


– The State Security (as well as the judicial) first had to deal with the follow-up of the “activists” the collaborators of WWI.

– In the 1920s and 1930s new radical political parties were established. On the extreme left side (Communist Party of Belgium, PCB/KPB), as well as on the extreme right side (Frontpartij, VNV, Verdinaso, REX-party).

– A communist sabotage group (Wollweber group) linked to the Komintern appeared (1933-1939). It carried out bomb attacks against ships of the Axis powers (Italian, Japanese and Nazi-German) in the port of Antwerp.

– In the immediate run-up to WWII, the State Security was asked to compile lists of Belgians and foreign nationals who might act as fifth column. Many of them were arrested at the outbreak of hostilities.


– After the Eighteen Day Campaign and the occupation of Belgium, a number of members of the government fled to London. There they formed the Belgian Government in exile. Again, since 1830 and during WWI, the neutrality of the country would also be strongly emphasized during WWII. Belgium considered itself a country at war, attacked by the same enemy, so fighting side by side with the Allies. Moreover, this independence could be maintained because of the fact that the unoccupied Belgian Congo produced a lot of raw materials necessary for the Allied war economy (not to mention the uranium that would ultimately be a deciding factor).

– In occupied Brussels, the Nazis kept the ‘Aliens Police’, useful for the files on refugees and Jews! The State Security was dismantled, the Nazis had ‘sufficient’ security services of their own.

– To maintain its (neutral) independence, the Belgian government in London had to prove to the Allies that it was aware of what was happening in occupied Belgium. Immediately, the State Security was reestablished. The Belgian Prime Minister gave order to the State Security to make Belgium “A House of Glass”.

– In occupied Belgium numerous citizens, men and women from all ages and social classes, were indignant by the occupation of their native country. As a result, they felt the need ‘to do something about it’ and would evolve to a special form of the resistance. No less than 18.716 Intelligence and Action Agents (IAA) in 129 Intelligence and Action Services (IAS) and Missions with agent-parachutists operated in occupied Belgium, The Netherlands, Luxembourg, France and even in Vichy-France, Nazi-Germany and the Italian occupied zone of France. In cooperation with the British services (MI5, MI6, MI9, SOE and PWE), they were directed by the State Security in exile in London. Their fields of operation were: political, economic and military espionage; sabotage; psychological warfare; propaganda; escape lines; meteorological intelligence; support to people who refused compulsory work service and to Jews; … At least 4.000 IAA were arrested and 1.815 were killed. They were shot to death, decapitated or killed in concentration camps.

– After the war ended, many of these IAA were deployed to the State Security. In a special and temporary ‘Judicial Police Department’, in context of researching collaborators during the Repression and ‘Epuration’. Others enlisted in the intelligence units of the British and American armies and continued the war in Nazi-Germany itself.

#7 The Cold War definitely shaped all Western Europe history. This must be the case for Belgium too. After all, after France withdrew from NATO’s integrated military structure (1966), Belgium hosted SHAPE (which we already encountered in another interview (#24), with Brig. Gen. James Cox, Deputy Chief of Staff Intelligence at SHAPE). So, how would you describe the Belgian involvement in the Cold War?


– After WWII, Belgium renounced its long-cherished neutrality and fully engaged in international organizations (BLEU, Benelux, ECSC, EEC/EU, NATO).

– In the 1940s and 1950s counterintelligence (CI), against the USSR and somewhat later the Warsaw Pact and Cuba, became the main activity of the State Security.

– Already before 1968 (permanent relocation of the NATO HQ to Brussels), a separate and protected analysis service ‘counterintelligence’ was formed within the State Security (VSSE). On the operations side, the CI was the most important section in material and human resources. This section had its own cells ‘observation & surveillance’, ‘technology’, ‘USSR’, ‘satellite states’ and ‘investigations & interrogations’. In the various provincial offices of the State Security there were also separate CI cells, directly dependent from the central in Brussels.

– Following the decision (1967) of the relocation of NATO, the Belgian government committed itself to expand the personnel of the State Security. These recruitments took place in 1968.

– Indeed, the arrival of NATO brought increased espionage activity, since the alliance was the priority target. The KGB had good control over the services of the satellite states and coordinated behind the scenes. Romania, which set its own course outside the Warsaw Pact, was the exception. In Belgium was the Polish service, after the KGB the most active. They were succeeded by the Czechoslovakian service after the declaration of martial law in Poland (1981).

– Until its recognition (1972) by the Western states, the GDR could not maintain any official representation (embassy, consulate, trade delegation). The East German HVA therefore specialized in operations with illegal intelligence officers. They were quite successful. The last GDR-agent within NATO HQ was arrested in July 1993.

– Until the mid-1980s CI (next to anticommunism) remained the most important task of the State Security. From the 1970s onwards the importance of counter-terrorism increased. First of all, Palestinian terrorism. Followed by ideological terrorism (Red Brigades in Italy, CCC in Belgium, …) and separatist terrorism (Northern Ireland, Basque, Kurds, Armenians…).

– In the same period, and partly as a result of the rapid collapse of the Soviet bloc, new phenomena emerged: organized crime, proliferation of nuclear, chemical and biological weapons.

#8 Let’s come to the present. First, there is a “Belgian intelligence community”? What is the current mission of the Belgian intelligence community?


Two Intelligence Services were active in Belgium for a long time. If we talk about the intelligence community, we must include the Standing Committee R, which reports to the Belgian Parliament and exercises external oversight on the two services. In addition, Committee R determines the threat levels based on the Federal Police’s intelligence and services. We can also include the Federal Prosecutor’s Office, which has general competence in the field of terrorism and which works in collaboration with the two Intelligence Services. Furthermore, let us not forget the specialized sections of the Federal Police. However, there is no “legal” or “operational” definition of the intelligence community as in other countries.

#9 Belgium is the host of crucial EU and NATO institutions. Does this geographical proximity give any advantage from intelligence collection and analysis perspective? What is the level of integration among the Belgian intelligence EU partners and NATO?


Brussels is the capital of the European Union and the headquarters of NATO. Collaboration between the Belgian intelligence services, the EU, and NATO is essential to ensure the security of the two institutions. But the two institutions do not, strictly speaking, have any Intelligent Services. The cooperation between the member States occurs through the collaboration between their several services on the condition that these States have agents present on the territory. Contacts are close and regular and sometimes lead to joint action. The international press highlighted the trial of a Hungarian MEP who allegedly had “inappropriate” contacts with agents of a non-EU foreign service. Collaborations are important in the context of counter-espionage and counter-insurgency. Cooperation on counter-terrorism has already been discussed. What is at stake for Belgium, and therefore for the two Intelligence Services, is to guarantee its sovereignty over Belgian territory by effectively fighting against any threat to the two institutions. This implies a close collaboration with the Services of the “big ones”, but also the control of the actions of these “big” Services on Belgian territory. On the Belgian territory, the actions of the partner Services are allowed as long as the Belgian Services are informed and have control.

#10 Given the time which we are all living, it looks like we should embrace the future as the time of opportunity instead of the apocalypse, as many poplar movies depicted it recently. So, a question about the future is refreshing. According to you, are we ready for a more integrated intelligence sharing in the EU? Is this a plausible direction in the intelligence sphere or, instead, it is just a remote, and maybe not entirely desirable, possibility?

[GR] The European Intelligence Services collaborate and share a lot. But intelligence is not the responsibility of the European Union. The big countries do not accept it and will not accept it for a long time.

Intelligence is a fundamental component of national sovereignty to which large states are attached. Beyond the collaboration, which can only improve, I do not believe that closer integration can be achieved in the coming years, such as the creation of a European Intelligence Service. The difficulties encountered by the European counter-terrorism coordinator (Gilles de Kerchove) are a good example of this. Sitecen (or the Service that replaces it) is not an Intelligence service and does not replace frequent inter-service exchanges.

#11 How can our readers follow you?


BISC ‘Cahiers Inlichtingenstudies – Cahiers d’Etudes du Renseignement’, 11 numbers, articles in Dutch, French, English, German.

Marc Cools, Koenraad Dassen, Robin Libert, Paul Ponsaers (eds); De Staatsveiligheid. Essays over 175 jaar Veiligheid van de Staat. La Sûreté. Essais sur les 175 ans de la Sûreté de l’Etat. Brussel, 2005, 383 p.

Roger Baron Coekelbergs, Marc Cools, Robin Libert, Veerle Pashley, Jaak Raes, David Stans, Renaat Vandecasteele (eds); Gedenkboek Inlichtings- en Actie Agenten. Livre-Mémorial Agents de Renseignement et d’Action. Gedenkbuch Nachrichten und Aktions Agenten. Memorial Volume Intelligence and Action Agents. Antwerpen, 2015, 862 p.

Marc Cools, Patrick Leroy, Robin Libert, Veerle Pashley, David Stans, Eddy Testelmans, Kathleen Van Acker (eds.); 1915-2015. Het verhaal van de Belgische militaire inlichtingen- en veiligheidsdienst. L’histoire du service de renseignement militaire et de sécurité belge. Antwerpen, 2016, 673 p.

Robin Liefferinckx, Emmanuel Debruyne, Robin Libert, Dirk Martin, Laurence Van Ypersele, Marc Cools (eds); Het Schaduwleger. Van clandestiniteit naar herinnering. L’Armée de l’ombre. De la clandestinité à la mémoire. Oud-Turnhout, 2020, 368 p.


Veiligheid van de Staat / Sûreté de l’Etat:

RUSRA-KUIAD, Royal Union of the Intelligence and Action Services (WWII)


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